Nano radio

Nano radio is a newer concept in which the main circuitry is consisting of only one carbon nanotube. This is developed by the Physicist and his colleagues of the University of California, Berkeley.

The nano radios could be effective and beneficial for many wireless devices like mobile phones or any environmental sensors. By the help of this technology the power consumption for many small electronic components will be reduced and the battery life will get increased.

The technology of the miniature radios is not new. It was always there in the list long back from 1955, when the RCA has started marketing their transistor radio which was popularly known at that time as pocket sized radio. Even the Zettl’s and team have also tried to make one of the smallest radios few years back. They have started working at the very molecular level in order to make inexpensive environmental sensors.

Zettl and his team were ultimately able to make a nanotube in to which they have tested well for two different radio signals. Those two radio signal from where they received the transmission were “Layla” by Derek & Dominos and the other one was “Good Vibrations” by Beach Boys.

The receiver which Zettl and his team made was able to transmit the electromagnetic oscillations created by the radio waves in to the mechanical vibrations in case of a nano tube. This will then convert in to some electrical pulses which basically create the original waves of the radio signal.

Zettl’s teams with their nanotube are able to receive information. Now they want that their radio should also able to transmit information to other places or circuits.

Apart from its applications as transmitters and receivers, Zettl also believe that their nano radio would be beneficial in the field of medical sciences as well. It is his belief that if some small chemical sensors when attached to the nano radio go inside the blood vessel of the patient who has diabetes or other diseases, it will help them in many ways. First of all, if those sensors able to discover some abnormalities in the level of insulin or some other compounds and transmit this information to the detector, that would be of great help towards the treatment of such patients.

Neuron control

Karl Deisseroth, a psychiatric in standard Medical Center treats his severely depressed patients who have difficulty in talking, eating, or walking. His treatment includes electro- convulsive therapy, which definitely cures the disease but patients also complains headaches, memory loss, and various other serious side effects too. Deisseroth is a physician as well as a bioengineer, believes that he has different and healthier way to treat this psychiatric problem. He has introduced much effective approach to control the neural cells with the help of flashes of light. This technology will surely help physician to treat psychiatric patients more accurately and without or very few side effects.

The imbalances in the chemicals inside the neurons create depression but still it is unknown for scientists as they are not sure about the affected cells. They experimented with the flashes of light which is when exposed to neuron; the protein contents activate some electrical movement in the cell. The electrical movements are then extends to the other neurons which is next to it. Scientists were looking for the response they get after they neurons get activated by light. They noted any changes or any type of activities in any part of brain.

On being experimenting on the rats, results shows same symptoms in certain humans who was suffering from depression. Deisseroth findings will definitely help scientists to improve the anti­depressants in more effective way.

Peer-to-peer Technology

With the vast popularity and increase in demand of various videos application, You Tube videos, popular TV shows has lead to choking up the Internet traffic to more than sixty percent – reports cacheLogic, an England based company of media delivery systems, who sells videos and other contents to various owners as well as to the ISPs (Internet Service Provider). A computer scientist, Huo Zhang of Carnegie Mellon University has said that it will go up to 98 percent in another 2 years. This will result in very slow download connection for every user.

Zhang is expecting that the technology called peer-to-peer or P2P file distribution could help to solve these issues. Already there are thousands and millions of P2P users all around the globe. The most common among them are Kazza, Bit Torrent, and Gnutella. Zhang wants this P2P network technology to rectify a little which will also help for authenticity of the contents of the owners or Internet provider and deliver it without the network to be overloaded

The main difference lies between the architecture of a P2P and the traditional distribution of video or other contents by the owners or the ISPs. Traditionally, the path used to deliver various web or video contents are similar to structure of a tree. Here the central server are like tree trunk, the distribution servers act like the tree branches and the consumers or users computer acts like a leaves of a tree. In tree architecture the issues starts if any branch is cut, the leaves will also go. The flow of data in this case is unidirectional.

While P2P network works like a mesh. Central servers are not there in this case, each computer which is in P2P network exchange data shift wise. For example, if one PC is off, transferring of data shifts to different PC in the network, so it never ends.

Paul Francis, a computer scientist at Cornell University already started to test a P2P system called Chunkyspread. It is a system which basically brings the best features of both mesh of P2P and traditional trees structure. And the concept is that the consumer PCs align as simple tree, but the difference is that it can also able to connect to each other, ultimately it will reduce burden on its branches.

Zhang believes that the new technology of chunkyspread will also make the P2P traffic acceptable by most of the ISPs. He is now developing a system from which Internet service providers can also get benefit out from P2P like technology.

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